Fumarole vegetation

Specialized vegetation develops near soufrières or fumaroles (the crevices of volcanoes which vent sulphurous fumes). While these may be on mountain slopes they are also present in relatively low-lying areas

spp., bromeliads such as Pitcairnia spp. and a few ferns and fern allies like Lycopodium are some of the plants forming the scrubby community in these areas.   


Fumarole vegetation, Soufrière Sulphur Springs, Dominica. The shrub is bwa wouj
(Cyrilla racemiflora).                                              Photo © Arlington James.

Kaklen (Clusia mangle) at Soufrière Springs, Dominica. Rock balsam 
(Clusia plukenetii)
occupies a similar niche in Martinique and St Lucia. 
Both are Lesser Antillean endemics.               Photo © Arlington James.

Pitcairnia angustifolia is tolerant of the sulphurous fumes
Photo © Sean Carrington
Bwa wouj (Cyrilla racemiflora) the main shrub present
Photo © Sean Carrington

Environmental factors

Poisonous (often hot) gases; excessive salts in the soil, soil acidity. Windy and wet. 
Click here
to see an active vent.

In areas with no thermal activity, ground lizards, small birds, insects.  

Caribbean Vegetation Mapping Project Equivalent
VII.C.3.N.c. Submontane fumeroles with sparse herbaceous vegetation


This site was last updated on 29 October, 2013.
Sean Carrington 2004
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